Ibdâl in Arabic Language

Halil İbrahim Kocabıyık, Yeliz Açar


In Arabic it is possible to make changes and variations on letters in order to provide ease of use and fluency in some words. Some of these variations are regular; however, some of them are irregular. All of them are discussed and analysed in the issue of ibdal (commutation). The word of ibdal (إِبْدال ) which derives from the root of (b-d-l) “بدل” and is the infinitive from the chapter of if’âl إِفْعَال means “replacing something with something, changing the position or state of something”. İbdâl rather deals with the variations in strong letters. In this study, besides the definition of ibdâl, the types of the ibdâl, grammatical (lügavî), lexical (sarfi) and substitutive (idgâm) ibdal were studied and analysed with their examples. İʿlâl (defection) which deals with the interconversion of defective letters and hiatus is also a form of ibdal. However, ibdal is a more comprehensive term than iʿlâl. When the subject of İbdâl is comprehended in all of its aspects, it provides the original of regular variations in some chapters to emerge and it becomes easier to recognize the chapters of the transforming verbs. In this way, it is easy to find the original letters in Arabic. In order not to extend the study, transformations called as iʿlâl have been excluded from the article.


Commutation; Substitution; Grammatical Ibdal; Lexical Ibdal; Arabic Language

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TURJAS, ISSN: 2667-4491

Turkish Research Journal of Academic Social Science (TURJAS) is indexed in: